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from WindowVia Window Cleaning and Pressure Washing

Why Window Cleaning is Important

When it comes to keeping your home or commercial property in top condition, you must get your windows cleaned regularly. Fortunately, our team here at WindowVia are your local property cleaning and window cleaning experts, and we can help you find the window cleaning solutions you need. So, let’s look at why window cleaning is important for your home and find out about the window cleaning tips you should choose. Why Window Cleaning is Important There are many reasons why window cleaning can be important for your property. Today, we’ll look at just a few of these to help you find the perfect window cleaning solutions for your needs. First of all, it’s essential to consider the quality of your home’s glass. If you don’t clean windows regularly, the build-up of dirt and debris can get into the pores of your glass. In turn, this can have a significant impact on how well your glass can cope; it’ll not only look poor, but it will also make your glass weaker overall. What’s more, if your windows aren’t in perfect condition, you may also find that the air quality inside your property becomes impacted. This can cause numerous complications such as breathing difficulties or illness, so it’s worth avoiding if at all possible! Finally, you should consider how clean and well-maintained windows can help improve your property’s heating efficiency. This is because dirt and dust on your property’s windows will block out sunlight, which means that you’ll need to spend more money heating your home (or otherwise suffer in the cold!). So, keeping your windows clean will not only keep them looking better and prevent damage, but you’ll cut your heating bills a little too! Get Professional Window Cleaning Support Today! If you need professional window cleaning services, our team here at WindowVia is on hand to help. We pride ourselves on offering the highest quality window cleaning services. After all, we are confident that top-class window cleaning can have a significant benefit for your house’s overall condition. So, don’t leave things to chance. Get professional window cleaning support by contacting a member of our team today to learn more. Or, why not visit our website at https://windowvia.com/, or check out our window cleaning page at https://windowvia.com/window-cleaning/. We have the cleaning services you need for your home, so get in touch with us today!

Our Social Pages: https://www.facebook.com/windowviacleaningservices/ https://www.instagram.com/windowvia/

 
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from The Diary of a Fallen Angel

Falafel Night here...

We had Chez Talal [link] tonight... it was great and very filling. I love falafel. :)

I have this song in my head atm..

I am going to wait til Bees is done with the dishes, and after that we shall see if there is leftover Diet Pepsi from the last order we put in. And KD Easy Mac for me.

I am going to make a one entry story prompt fic thing on here.

Sammy

 
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from Abstract Enterprises Security Systems

Security cameras have proven to be an important aspect of home and office security. Many homeowners and business owners in Brooklyn now consider the installation of security camera systems as a perfect way of safeguarding their assets. This has indirectly brought about an increase in the number of security camera companies, Brooklyn. As such, when you intend to protect your properties with this fast-growing security technology in the Brooklyn area of NYC, hiring the services of the best security camera company is essential

https://www.abstractenterprisessecuritysystems.com/

 
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from elilla & friend’s very occasional blog thing

A friend has invited us to talk about our religion, and while I love to talk, this is one thing where talking feels so unsatisfying. I want to describe my religion like this:

  1. Ask the nearest terreiro to join a gira.
  2. Feel the beat of the drums.
  3. Get possessed.
  4. Spin skirt.

(credits: Hell-Queen Pombagira via Bruxo Malagueta)

…as a typical folk religion: a thing you do, not a set of beliefs in your mind. Umbanda people don’t have theological discussions, we share HOWTOs, ‘this pombagira herbsbath is wild, you gotta try it!’. If you’re curious about what it’s like, what I really would love to do would be to sit with you and browse a bunch of songs, rather than intellectualising what is of the body. I want your heart to beat faster. This is our religion doing possession at its most organised and respectable, which is ‘not very’ lol:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PCOpAMCxRSU

…and this is our religion when closest to root :

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cz2qh6ovu6I

(translation: this opens with invitation-chants, broken-voiced, hard for her to concentrate, ‘she drinks, smokes, does whatever… whatever she wants’… ‘woman, spin your ganga-skirt, oh…’ ‘it’s midnight, the moon… (Maria-mother, these spirits…) the moon h-hides, at the crossroads…’ – then at 1:09 you have the telltale laugh that marks a pombagira coming up into her body; she moves in possessed trance, slowly, greets the girls filming it, inviting them to salute a variety of entities.)

But most umbanda happens in Brazil, the songs are deliberately super easy and catchy but not if you don’t know street Portuguese, the nearest terreiro might be very far away and it’s all closed due to the apocalypse anyway. So let’s try and give the proselytist spiel hihihi


All over Latin America, you’ll find people making off-hand comments about these mysterious gods and spirits. Your friend might regularly pour out a little booze ‘for the saint’ at the bar, your grandma might have a funny little bracelet pouch smelling like certain specific herbs. Travesti street-workers will talk of their pombagira telling them to block such-and-such on Facebook. The Christians will draw out and exorcise these spirits in their megachurches, blame the queerness of their children on possession, rail against the Satanic corruption to elect right-wing pastors, even stone little girls for cultuating the wrong gods, in the distant medieval past of (checks notes) 2015. Many of these entities have a seedy, low-class aura, dealing in sex and money and revenge; yet if you ask around and find a priest or shaman figure, they’re invariably these absurdly generous aunties, sweetest old grandpas, protective prostitute mamas, fully embedded in the mundane life of their communities and devoting their entire lives to caring for those around them. These gods and spirits – Baron Samedi of the Cemetery and Eshu-King of the Crossroads, Ndandalunda sexy Young-Mother and furious Oyá of the thunderstorm – are seen by polite society as shadowy, dark, uncivilised. As Black.

Photo of Andréa de Mayo Andréa de Mayo, travesti pimp and crime-mama, violently protective of her girls, said to walk around with a nunchaku facing police and druglords alike for trans folk (2000†). In the background of her brothel-flat, a nude painting of Black porn actor Long Dong Silver, side-by-side with a face portrait of a Preto-velho, Ol’ Black, one of the umbanda spirit guides. Andréa was a daughter of the Orishas in Egbá-Arakê Candomblé, of Yorubá ancestry. (photo: Claudia Guimarães.)

These are folk cults brought by enslaved African peoples, oral traditions which survived the ensuing cultural genocide, changed, adapted, synchretised with folk Catholic cults in many cases, and became a safe haven for marginalised people of all sorts. These practices are Black-centred but open and welcoming to all folk, in the easygoing, melting-pot way typical of Latin America. We call them African-matrix (or diaspora) religions. They do not work the way big centralised coloniser religions work, and are distinct from the source African religions too.

In the Anglosphere, the most famous diasporic practice is probably Haitian Vodou, thanks to American horror movies. These religions, practices or beliefs, however you call them, are as oral and diverse as it gets, but not random; they’re traditionally grouped into ‘nations’ by cultural/spiritual ancestry, of which the most widespread are probably the Jeje, Ketu and Angola/Congo nations (corresponding to the Fon, Yorubá and Bantu language families, respectively). Vodou is Jeje nation. Brazil has a strong presence of Yorubá nation in the form of Ketu Candomblé, a proud religion where they invite the Orisha gods to come down and dance in the body of masked initiates. There’s also an old, quiet, deep substrate of Angola nation in street ‘macumba’ sorcery (even Brazilian Portuguese is full of Bantu vocabulary). Practitioners of this magick are called ‘(tatá) quimbandas’, and the pratice itself today often goes by Quimbanda.

Umbanda takes the Quimbanda witchery, adds the Yorubá Orisha gods, pastes Catholic saints over them, mixes in Amazonian shamanism, takes over French Spiritism séance tables, invites along the Roma for good measure, and calls itself a Brazilian religion. In many ways it is Cultural Appropriation: The Religion, for good and bad (in the same way that ‘Brazilian culture’ is Cultural Appropriation: The Culture, for good and bad). At its best it proved to be a way to give voice to the marginalised, to pay respect to their experience and worldview and amplify it, with an endgoal of re-indigenisation. At its best, it gives back concretely, it has fought for and alongside the countless traditions it draws from, supports these folk materially as a core praxis. At worst it is a whitewashing of African-matrix religions for respectability. (I as a white Latina of course don’t want to bleach the Black roots, claim ownership of them, or be respectable. We recognise this problematic issue in the history of our religion, and work to undermine it. It’s one reason we skip the whole Christian synchretism thing, and focus on the so-called ‘left’ entities. It’s also why we write ‘umbanda’ lowercase, like ‘shamanism’ or ‘witchcraft’; we align ourselves with the bewildering, kaleidoscopic, intuitive ways the folk cultuate these spirits, not specifically with Zélio Moraes’ systematic codification of the term.)

Like most African-matrix religions there is no single cosmology, unified creed or central authority. We are yet to see two umbandistas who believe the same things; even the concept of ‘belief’ feels like a category error. If you go on Wikipedia, for example, there’s some elaborate cosmology about a singular God, identified with the Christian creator and with Olorum, of whom the Orisha are emanations, corresponding to the Catholic saints in complex hierarchies etc. But if you go to Youtube and watch some umbanda mothers-of-saint, you’ll find one of the most popular happily claiming to be atheist and denying the existence of gods altogether – despite calling herself ‘Mother Bárbara of Iansã’ and basing her practice on possession. The whole cosmology thing is besides the point, really. Umbanda practice is making an offering to a spirit and getting a result you need and sharing it in joyful solidarity. The spirits couldn’t care less about which set of mental models you consciously subscribe to. (They do care about you keeping your part of the deal, mind you.)

As a living folk religion umbanda thrives in multiplicity, adaptation, change. In this Very Online Era, practitioners have spontaneously and collectively settled on emoji adornments for the traditional Yorubá greetings to the entities – Odoyá mother Iemanjá 🌊🐟🌼🧜‍♀️🐚, Laroyê lady Pombagira 🔱🔥💄💃👠.[1] There’s an anthropological report about transfeminine possession by a Lady Gaga Pombagira in the North.[2] I’ve watched an embodied eshu spirit be interrupted by a spontaneous pronouncement from Siri and happily treat it as an oracle for the rest of the meeting (‘you must unlock your device’, was Siri’s mystical wisdom).[3]

Compared to Candomblé, umbanda is less god-oriented and more spirit-oriented. We do honour the Yorubá pantheon and work with them, and in true umbanda fashion any other divinities are easy to integrate by individual practitioners (one of our Japanology professors based his career on the study of Okinawan Shamanism–umbanda synchretism by Okinawan immigrants [5]; umbanda looks at a newcomer cosmology the way I look at a new lover). We don’t call the African gods into our bodies, which I would understand as actually appropriative without the corresponding initiations (notice however that white, Native American and other ethnicities are all welcome and commonplace in Black Candomblé terreiros, as long as you don’t act like you own the place). In umbanda-type possession we deal more or less horizontally with spirits rather than gods. The following is a list of major classes of spirits that we people of umbanda talk to in person for guidance:

  • Caboclos (indigenous folk),
  • Pretos-velhos (Ol’ Blacks, slave ancestors),
  • Ciganos (Roma and other Gypsy[4] folk),
  • Erês (children),
  • Baianos (a marginalised minority from the Northeast),
  • Malandros (ne’er-do-well, sweet-talkers and hedonists in general),
  • Exus (wild masculine spirits of fire, sex and carnality),
  • Pomba-giras (woman-exus, free and high-femme, often sex workers),
  • Sailors,
  • And cattle-farmers.

From this list of folk we look up to for advice and counsel, I think one can get the mood of our religion. All but the last two are social classes which would be considered low-prestige in Brazilian society, disreputable, untrustworthy. And I wouldn’t be so sure about the sailors either, tbh. (Umbanda sailor-spirits tend be rowdy and melancholic rather than military in nature, and according to a certain podcast, they’ve been showing pirate traits as of late – to the bafflement of many traditional mediums. I welcome this development with a hearty yo-ho.)

All of this is my personal relation to the religion, of course. I don’t think anybody does umbanda without having their own individual take on it. I approached it unplanned – it approached me, really, we were called – and after it did a lot of good for me I dove into the thing with a frankly worshipful attitude, only to be told by the spirits ‘ma’am if you want to light a candle for me, say, you’re doing that ~for~ what? what do you ~want~?’. It’s, not the worshippy kind of religion. As I understand it it’s empowering, life-affirming, community-building, its practice feels like a fun party at first but is secretly baiting you into the work of healing and growth. When we talk with other umbanda practitioners about whether our spirits are ‘real’ or whether we are doing it ‘right’, their diagnosis is universal: ‘look at the results, what are the contents of what the voices say, are they making your life better? In concrete terms, are they helping you to reach out, to do good things for others? If so it’s real umbanda.’ And we know we’re umbandistas because of how enthusiastically we can say ‘fuck yes they are.’ Saravá ^.^


Photo of Rosinha Malandra riding the body of Rosa Luyara mid-gira, a voluptuous travesti woman holding a glass of booze in a generously cut yellow dress while hugging another girl. Just your average umbanda religious service: Rosinha Malandra, hedonist street-smart pombagira, in signature yellow garb while riding her travesti medium Rosa Luyara, Mother Rosinha. Rosinha is a renowned priestesses and her terreiro has become something of a trans/queer spiritual locus. More about her on Aninha Moraes’ thesis.[6] Photo source: Mãe Rosinha’s Instagram.

We are especially interested in the insurrectionary potential inherent to this tradition. We’re talking here about a religion where poor, Black, queer, homeless, sex-worker, favela folk will gather at night and call Pombagira Maria-of-the-Rags singing songs like this,

Maria-Mulambo was crying~ oh-oh It wasn’t out of regret From murdering her own boss Her loud laugh is so beautiful It’s Good Friday tonight.

We don’t want to oversell this here, it’s not like every terreiro is a perfectly woke anarchist cell planning revolution. (lots of anti-bolsonarista spiritual organising going on tho!) It’s said that possession is like mixing coffee and milk, something of the medium is always present; and not always the spirits can dismantle the medium’s personal prejudices. There are terreiros which will, bafflingly for members of a religion widely derided as a ‘slavehouse half-barbaric cult’, still try to avoid association with what they see as ‘unsavoury’ people. More than one conductor forbids what they see as ‘cross-gender’ possession (though the fact it has to be explicitly suppressed should tell you something). But by and large, and especially when compared with other spiritual/community centres, African-matrix sacred spaces have historically been a place of not only refuge and welcome, but active celebration and empowerment: for the very poor, for ethnic minorities, for marginal women, the excluded, the queer.

Shamanic possession as a way to give – metaphorical and literal – voice to the margins of society is not exclusive to umbanda, it’s the role of adorcism in most of the world: to open oneself to they who have no voice, to offer them your mouth to speak out, to make people listen. Conversely, exorcism, the opposite of adorcism, has always been a tool of colonisation and state control; clerical Buddhism got its foothold in Japan by promising the Yamato emperors better exorcisms than their state priests could perform against vengeful fox-spirits, which so often took over the women they wanted to domesticate; and today in Dubai, the djinns of the Smokeless Fire are known to burn down buildings of bad landlords, angered by the ostentatious towers while their folk live in shanties.[7] Muslim patriarchs blame gayness on djinn possession much like Brazilian pastors blame pombagiras. This bond between queer people and transgressive possession goes in exactly the opposite direction of what the State religions claim: this class of spirit is attracted to queer people by virtue of our queerness, not as the cause of it.

I am far from the only trans girl to find herself (despite my fragile atheism) protected by a pombagira, and her relationship to us is the kernel of our umbanda practice. To our knowledge there’s no book or documentary about this, but if you talk at any length with Brazilian travestis – whose special argot, Pajubá, is full of Bantu terms from terreiros – it doesn’t take much digging to spot allusions to embodied pombagiras.[8] This class of spirit is proudly diverse, comes in a bewildering complexity of ‘phalanxes’ – skull-witches and sweet little girls, ex-queens and famous beggars and port-town brawlers, indigenous and Black and Gypsy, and most of all sex workers, every imaginable kind of sex worker. The word itself sounds like nonsense, it’s Portuguese for 'pidgeon-spins', though that does evoke the skirt-spinning of the cult-nights, themselves called 'spins' (giras). But the etymology traces down to Pambu-Ianzila/Mpambu-Njila/Bumba-Nzila, a Bantu Nkisi god, his name meaning literally ‘Path’, ‘Crossroad’ (similarly, the gira meetings are thought to mean ‘crossroads meetings’ originally). Like his Yorubá equivalent, Eshu, Nzilá is a sexual, fiery, animal, and decidedly male entity whose role is to open paths, to liberate what had been blocked or bound. In umbanda Eshu-god became the eshus, an entire class of myriad spirits of freedom. And Nzilá also multiplied; but, in a process whose material history isn’t documented, the crossroads-Nkisi at some point flipped gender expression to the extreme opposite of the binary, becoming the outrageously, erotically, exceedingly female spirits we call the pombagiras, notoriously protective not just of women but also femme gay men and feminine people in general.

In other words, Nzilá came to Brazil and transitioned. —a crossing, a turnabout, a gira.


[1] Machado, Alisson, and Sandra Rubia da Silva. «“O que é meu é da cigana!”: religiosidade travesti em contextos de curimba digital» [“What’s mine belongs to gypsy!”: Travesti religiosity in digital curimba contexts]. Comunicação, Mídia e Consumo 16.45 (2019): 143.

[2] Filho, Eduardo Meinberg de Albuquerque Maranhão Filho. «A Pomba-gira Lady Gaga e a travesti indígena: (Re/des) fazendo gênero no Alto Rio Negro, Amazonas.» [Lady Gaga Pombagira and the Indigenous Travesti: (Re-/de-)constructing gender in the Amazonian Native community of Alto Rio Negro]. Mouseion 22 (2015): 151-175.

[3] This was Mr. 7 of the Lyre, renowned for causing the military dictatorship to ban ‘vultar spiritism’ from TV after he led impromptu group possessions into live dance, then responding to the fascist ban by conducting a full-blown ritualistic Carnival parade.

[4] I am using ‘Gypsy’ to translate the Portuguese cognate ‘cigano’. I am aware that many English-speaking Rromani folks consider the term a slur, but in Brazil it seems to be widely used for self-identification, as seen in the Embaixada Cigana website (my Gypsy Dance teacher not only calls herself and her people Gypsy but also the dance she’s teaching, as do all others I’ve seen). In addition, Brazilian Gypsies classify themselves into three distinct groups, Calon, Roma and Sinti, so they can’t be generalised as ‘Roma’.

[5] Mori, Koichi. «Tornando-se uma Xamã Étnica Okinawana no Brasil—A Xamanização como um Processo Subjetivo e Criativo de Reculturalização» [Becoming an ethnically Okinawan Shaman in Brazil: Shamanisation as a Subjective and Creative Re-culturalising process]. In: Diálogos interculturais: reflexões interdisciplinares e intervenções psicossociais (2012): 27–.

[6] Carvalho, Ana Claudia Moraes de. «Puta, Pistoleira, Dona de Cabaré: a espetacularidade do corpo-cavalo-travestido de Dona Rosinha Malandra no Templo de Rainha Bárbara Soeira e Toy Azaka» [Whore, Pimp, Gunslinger: The spectacle of the travesti-body-horse of Miss Rosinha Malandra at the Queen Bárbara Soeira and Toy Azaka Temple]. Doctoral thesis, Federal University of Pará, Belém, 2021.

[7] Parkhurst, Aaron Lee. «Genes and Djinn: Identity and Anxiety in Southeast Arabia.» Diss. UCL (University College London), 2014.

[8] See also the Padilha-of-the-Souls Pombagira who resided with and protected a lesbian found-family in: Medeiros, Camila Pinheiro. «Mulheres de Kêto: etnografia de uma sociedade lésbica na periferia de São Paulo» [The Keto Women: ethnography of a lesbian community in the São Paulo ghetto]. Master’s thesis in Social Anthropology. Rio de Janeiro: UFRJ/Museu Nacional, 2006.

 
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from orhukuk

Marka Hukuku

Marka nedir, bir marka avukatı na ne zaman ve neden ihtiyaç duyarsınız? Hızla gelişen ve dijitalleşen dünyada markanızın önemi ve orjinalliğinin korunması oldukça önemlidir.

Marka nedir, bir marka avukatı na ne zaman ve neden ihtiyaç duyarsınız? Hızla gelişen ve dijitalleşen dünyada markanızın önemi ve orjinalliğinin korunması oldukça önemlidir. Marka

Marka, bir teşebbüsün mal veya hizmetlerinin diğer teşebbüslerin mal veya hizmetlerinden ayırt edilmesini sağlayan simge veya işaretlerdir. Sözcüklerden, şekillerden, harflerden, sayılardan marka üretilebilmektedir. Ayrıca çizimlerden, sembollerden, ürünlerin ambalajlamalarında ya da şekillerinde kullanılan üç boyutlu karakterlerden, hatta seslerden, renklerden bile marka oluşturulması mümkündür.

Günümüzde her geçen gün kalabalıklaşan pazarlarda tüketicilerin işletmeleri birbirinden ayırmasını sağlayan unsur markadır. Marka, müşterilerin dikkatini çekmek, ürün veya hizmetlerinizi öne çıkarmak için etkili bir iletişim aracıdır. Marka, mal veya hizmetin kalitesini, güvenirliğini ve itibarını ifade eder.

Bu nedenlerle, kuruluşlar için markaların oluşturulması, korunması ve ticarileştirilmesi çok önem arz etmektedir. Bu önemin farkında olan ofisimiz, bu alanda marka hükümsüzlüğüne ilişkin davalar ve iptal davaları, marka lisans sözleşmesi, haksız rekabet davaları ile Türk Patent ve Marka Kurumu kararlarına karşı iptal davalarını oldukça profesyonel şekilde yürütmektedir. Büromuz bu uyuşmazlıklardan doğan tazminat davası süreçlerini de takip etmekte, sürecin bir parçası olan arabuluculuk görüşmelerinde müvekkillerini temsil etmektedir.

Müvekkillerin hak kaybına uğramaması adına müvekkiller ile işbirliği içinde hızlı aksiyon alan ekibimiz, marka ihlallerini önlemek amacıyla gerekli ihtarnameleri hazırlamakta ve ayrıca ihtiyati tedbir ve tespit kararı gibi aciliyet gerektiren işlemleri büyük bir profesyonellikle yönetmektedir. Davalara ek olarak, markalarla ilgili sözleşmelerin hazırlanması (devir, lisans, co-existence, sulh) da hizmetlerimizin bir parçasıdır. ALAN ADI UYUŞMAZLIKLARI

Hızla gelişen teknolojiyle birlikte internetin en büyük iletişim aracı haline gelmesi interneti tüm organizasyonlar için kaçınılmaz kılmaktadır. Bu nedenle alan adlarının önemi giderek artmakta uyuşmazlıklar da aynı orantıda fazlalaşmaktadır.

Alan adları “ilk gelen alır” ilkesi ile tahsis edilir dolayısıyla bir alan adını alınırken adla ilgili bir hakka sahip olmak veya bir organik bağın mevcudiyeti şart değildir. Bu nedenle alan adları kötü niyetli başvuru sahiplerince oldukça hızlı ve kolay bir şekilde tescil edilebilmektedir.

Or Hukuk ve Danışmanlık, marka avukatı; yetkili tahkim kuruluşlarından olan Dünya Fikri Mülkiyet Örgütü (WIPO) nezdinde alan adının iptali ve transferi ile ilgili tahkim prosedürünü başlatıp takip etmektedir. Ayrıca, internet sitesinde yer alan müvekkil haklarına ihlal teşkil eden kullanımların kaldırılması, ilgili internet sitelerine erişimin engellenmesi amacıyla ihtiyati tedbir taleplerinde bulunmak ve ilgililere ihtarnameler göndermek de sunulan hizmetlerin kapsamındadır.

 
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from O2 Mold Testing

O2 Mold Testing is a mold inspection company specializing in detecting and preventing mold growth in living spaces in Bethesda, MD. We follow all mold remediation protocols to ensure that your property is mold-safe. A mold inspection consists of checking the air conditioning for mold, surface sampling, air sampling, moisture mapping for hidden leaks, and visual inspection for mold growth.

Website: https://www.o2moldtesting.com/bethesda-md/

Our Social Pages: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCalQR1dDSb_P5HjXWbg60PA https://twitter.com/o2moldtesting

 
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from O2 Mold Testing

O2 Mold Testing is a mold inspection company specializing in detecting and preventing mold growth in living spaces in Burke, VA. We follow all mold remediation protocols to ensure that your property is mold-safe. A mold inspection consists of checking the air conditioning for mold, surface sampling, air sampling, moisture mapping for hidden leaks, and visual inspection for mold growth.

Website: https://www.o2moldtesting.com/burke-va/

Our Social Pages: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCalQR1dDSb_P5HjXWbg60PA https://twitter.com/o2moldtesting

 
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from Diario de um GNU

Mantenha Simples, Estúpido.

Como a simplicidade pode complicar as coisas

Relato por Carlos Silva

Primeira distro GNU/Linux

A primeira distribuição GNU/Linux que baixei e instalei em meu computador foi Ubuntu 12.04 “Precise Pangolin” em abril de 2012. O sistema utilizava um ambiente de trabalho de nome Unity, uma modificação do Gnome 3. Unity era um ambiente de trabalho muito bonito, porém, pesado.

Ubuntu foi o sistema operacional recomendado por um professor de um curso de administração de redes de computadores que participei em 2012. Mantive este sistema em meu computador por pouco mais de um ano (até maio de 2013), depois disso, migrei para Linux Mint 15 “Olivia”. Utilizei este sistema até meados de abril de 2015.

Debian, amor a primeira vista

Debian é um sistema operacional composto totalmente por software livre. Ela teve sua estreia em agosto de 1993, mas, só a conheci em abril de 2015, durante o “installfest” no festival latino-americano de instalação de software livre (Flisol) que acontecia na concha acústica, campus da universidade federal de pernambuco (UFPE).

O sistema operacional me fascinou com sua leveza e praticidade. Ao contrário do zunzum de alguns que dizem não ser indicado para iniciantes, não tive grandes problemas no início, apenas configuração de repositórios, adicionar usuário ao grupo sudo e instalação de firmware (opcional). Somente isso.

Na imagem abaixo, um exemplo da organização do interior do meu quarto e o momento da instalação da Debian em meu computador em abril de 2015.

Instalando Debian na minha carroça “Debian Install DVD1” por Jake Hume, licenciado sob: CC BY-SA 2.0

Migrando para o Parabola GNU/Linux-libre

Parabola GNU/Linux-libre é um sistema operacional fundamentado como uma versão livre do Archlinux. Assim como seu sistema base, Parabola GNU/Linux segue o principio KISS: Keep It Simple, Stupid (Mantenha Simples, Estúpido).

Parabola difere do Archlinux em seu desenvolvimento, pois, utiliza apenas pacotes otimizados para arquiteturas: i686, x86-64 e ARMv7 usando licenças de software livre. O sistema também utiliza o kernel GNU/Linux-libre: núcleo do sistema operacional, livre de blobs binários e firmware proprietários.

Parabola também é assegurado pela Free Software Foundation (FSF) como um sistema operacional totalmente livre.

O motivo de largar a Debian e admitir o Parabola como sistema operacional para o meu computador foi o meu descontentamento com a posição de alguns desenvolvedores do projeto Debian que seguiam, irracionalmente, uma campanha promovida por Red Hat e Projeto Gnome contra o retorno de Richard Stallman à diretoria da Free Software Foundation.

Outros grandes projetos, como: Fedora, KDE, SUSE e Mozilla se uniram à Red Hat e Gnome na campanha de cancelamento ao Patriarca. A muvuca provocada por desenvolvedores destes projetos gerou dois abaixo-assinados; um contra o retorno de RMS à Free Software Foundation e um a favor, isto é, total apoio ao retorno de Stallman à Free Software Foundation.

Problemas específicos na pós-instalação

Os problemas que tive com a distribuição Parabola podem ter sido um caso isolado, uma má sorte ou desconhecimento da minha parte. Por isso, deixo entendível que não estou desmerecendo as qualidades do sistema operacional nem o trabalho dos desenvolvedores.

Parabola“Parabola-installer” por https://www.parabola.nu/ licenciado sob: CC BY-SA 3.0

A maior parte dos problemas ocorrem depois do sistema instalado. Mas, um problema que me chamou à atenção foi as falhas no carregamento da página web enquanto estava usando uma VPN. A página ficava com repetição (loop) no carregamento e não abria de jeito nenhum. Não sei ao certo se este problema tem ligação com a VPN, mas durante dois dias não consegui acesso ao site do Parabola.

A versão que utilizei para instalação: Live DVD Parabola + LXDE + SystemD, completo! Instalador gráfico Calamares. O Hardware computacional utilizado: CPU Celeron 430 1.8 Ghz, 4GB RAM DDR2 e 40GB HD.

O carregamento do sistema em modo live deu-se de forma rápida e sem problemas. O ambiente utilizado, LXDE, tinha resposta rápida! Era possível abrir o navegador web Iceweasel, abrir o gerenciador de arquivos PCManFM e o Terminal com instruções em andamento, um depois do outro, sem lentidão alguma.

A instalação usando o Calamares ocorreu de forma satisfatória. Com o fim da instalação e reinício do sistema, o desktop estava aparentemente pronto, até surgirem os problemas...

  1. Não era possível mudar o tema padrão do ambiente LXDE. O tema era o mesmo do modo live. O pacote LXAppearance encontrava-se instalado, mas estava danificado. Para resolver o problema, precisaria reinstalá-lo (veja problema número 6).
  2. O fuso horário do sistema apontava para os Estados Unidos. Este problema não foi tão difícil de resolver. Primeiro ativei o serviço: systemd-timesyncd.service, depois editei o arquivo de configuração: /etc/systemd/timesyncd.conf e deixei igual ao do Archlinux: arch.pool.ntp.org. No final da configuração usei: timedatectl set-ntp true, para sincronizar o relógio no novo fuso horário.
  3. O idioma português brasileiro para o teclado apresentava várias teclas mortas ou acentos em locais diferentes. Este foi um verdadeiro maracatu para resolver, muitas teclas encontrava-se em locais diferentes, precisava teclar uma por uma para memorizá-las e inserir alguns comandos para corrigi-las. Fui direto ao ponto. Localizei o mapa de teclado correto com: localectl list-x11-keymap-layouts e editei o arquivo /etc/X11/xorg.conf, mas, o teclado não mudou o layout de jeito nenhum. Partir para a ignorância, criei um pequeno script com setxkbmap -model abnt2 -layout br -variant ,abnt2 e o teclado finalmente mudou o layout para português brasileiro.
  4. O gerenciador gráfico de pacotes Octopi não sincronizava com o repositórios oficiais do Parabola e não instalava pacotes. Octopi é um gerenciador de pacotes gráfico para pacman, ele é uma mão na roda para instalar pacotes, remover pacotes, configurar repositórios e atualizar todos os pacotes do sistema operacional com apenas alguns cliques do mouse. Funciona de maneira semelhante ao Synaptic da Debian. Infelizmente não estava funcionando (veja problema número 6).
  5. O gerenciador de redes exibia conectado e desconectado em intervalos de alguns minutos. O gerenciador de redes (network-manager) apresentava um problema intermitente. Em certo momento encontrava-se conectado, depois de 10 a 15 minutos desconectava e alguns segundos depois conectava novamente. Não explorei uma forma de resolver o problema. Deixei do jeito que estava.
  6. Este talvez seja o pior dos problemas... as chaves de TODOS OS PACOTES apresentavam inconsistências, alguns não tinham se quer assinaturas. Não era possível fazer absolutamente NADA! Conectar ao servidor de chaves era impossível, devido à impugnação do acesso. Esta etapa exigiu leitura, precisei ler todo artigo de assinatura de pacotes (Package signing) da wiki.archlinux.org. Fiz tudo que a wiki recomendou, usei o servidor indicado e quando achava que o problema seria solucionado, no primeiro pacman -Syu os problemas de chaves voltavam e pioravam ainda mais, os pacotes corrompiam. Dependências desencontradas, falta de assinatura de pacote, sem acesso ao servidor de chaves (por impugnação), um verdadeiro caos!

Passei quatro dias corridos avaliando e tentando corrigir os problemas que surgiram na pós-instalação do Parabola GNU/Linux.

Alguma coisa me dizia (provavelmente a consciência pesada) que não deveria ter feito esta migração.

Parabola GNU/Linux tem muito potencial, usei-o por quatro dias e me surpreendi com a leveza do sistema, até mesmo em modo live era super rápido. Outro ponto que me chamou a atenção foram algumas configurações básicas de segurança, como: OpenVPN por padrão, um firewall configurado e também ativado por padrão. Não cheguei a perceber se o sistema possuía uma ferramenta contra ataques, como é o caso do SELinux ou AppArmor.

Parabola não é muito diferente do Archlinux em sua estrutura, ele apenas utiliza pacotes selecionados com licenças de software livres.

De volta a Debian

Cogitei usar Trisquel GNU/Linux, já estava baixando a imagem do sistema operacional. Trisquel é um sistema totalmente livre, fácil de operar, ele é indicado para usuários domésticos iniciantes, pequenas empresas e centro educativos (Escolas, Associações, Universidades, etc). Desisti de instalá-lo.

Não sou mais um usuário iniciante, porém, também não sou avançado a ponto de usar Gentoo ou Funtoo em CLI por exemplo. Posso dizer que sou intermediário e Trisquel não é adequado para mim.

Poderia muito bem ter instalado o Archlinux e depois transformá-lo numa espécie de Parabola. Sim, isso é possível. Seria necessário trocar os repositórios do Archlinux pelos do Parabola, depois, instalar somente pacotes com licença livre incluindo também o Kernel. Caso não saiba, Linux-libre está disponível no AUR.

Sistema Operacional Debian“Debian net boot” por Kai Hendry, licenciado sob: CC BY 2.0

Meu retorno ao sistema operacional Debian consistiu de uma decisão equivocada como base em emoções, pois, pretendia cancelar a Debian e migrar para uma distribuição aprovada pela Free Software Foundation.

Houve uma votação no projeto Debian com a participação dos desenvolvedores sobre o retorno de Richard Stallman a diretoria da Free Software Foundation. A votação durou quase uma semana, e no dia 18 de Abril foi divulgado o resultado: a maioria dos desenvolvedores optaram em não participar do cancelamento de RMS. Fiquei aliviado.

Sim, faltou prudência de minha parte. Achei que o projeto Debian estava apoiando uma zombaria quando na verdade eram algumas pessoas dentro do projeto (DDs).

Bom, de qualquer modo, estou feliz novamente, voltei com a Debian, de onde não deveria ter descasado.

Licença de Cultura livre

Licença Creative Commons
Este obra está sob uma licença Creative Commons Atribuição 4.0 Internacional.

 
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